Grezzo Co, Ltd is a Japanese video game developer best known for their partnership with Nintendo, particularly for their involvement in the development and co-development of various The Legend of Zelda titles.

Nintendo R&D3

Nintendo Research & Development 3 commonly abbreviated as Nintendo R&D3 was a development group that was formed in December 1980. With Nintendo R&D1 busy developing their new Game & Watch line of handhelds as well as arcade machines and R&D2 heavily focused on creating home consoles Nintendo decided to expand their research and development department to assist both teams. The creation of a new division would allow Nintendo to have a dedicated team focused on hardware improvement and software development for hardware that was being created by the other research and development teams.

Nintendo R&D2

Nintendo Research & Development 2 commonly abbreviated as Nintendo R&D2 was a development group that was formed when Nintendo’s oldest video game development team Nintendo Research & Development split into several groups to expand their service offerings. This allowed each team to concentrate on creating and developing particular products and services.


Tengen was a video game developer and publishing company owned by Atari. The company was established on December 21, 1987 as a subsidiary of Atari Games. The company is best known for circumventing the Nintendo Entertainment System’s lockout chipset and publishing unlicensed games for the Nintendo Entertainment System without the consent of Nintendo.


MercurySteam is an independent video game developer located in San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid, Spain. The studio was founded in 2002 by Enric Alvarez and has became best known for developing the Castlevania: Lords of Shadow trilogy as well as for their recent involvement in the development of 2D Metroid games.

Kee Games

Kee Games was an American video game developer that manufactured arcade games from 1973 through 1978. In 1973 over half of the ping pong style games on the market were “Pong” clones and Atari continued to come up with innovated ways to expand the company. In order to obtain as much market share as possible Nolan Bushnell approached his friend and neighbor Joseph Keenan with the idea to create Kee Games which would allow Atari to sign exclusive contracts with distributors in each geographic area to buy only Atari games.

Make Software

Make Software was a Japanese video game developer that was founded in November 1989. The company began developing games for the Famicom and Nintendo Entertainment System in the early 1990’s and formed a relationship with Capcom to co-develop some of their later Nintendo Entertainment System games.

Ape Inc.

Ape Inc. was a Japanese video game developer that was founded in March 1989 as an affiliate of Nintendo and is best known for the creation of the EarthBound series. The studio was created for the sole purpose of developing the Famicom role playing game Mother. The concept of the development studio began when then president of Nintendo, Hiroshi Yamauchi saw a television interview of Japanese copywriter Shigesato Itoi defending the video game industry.

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Studio 128

Studio 128 was an internal development group that was formed when Sega’s oldest video game development team Sega Production and Engineering Department was split into several groups to expand their service offerings as well as to allow each team to concentrate on particular products and services. Sega Production and Engineering Department created many of Sega’s electro-mechanical arcade games in the 1960s and 1970s, but the division did not solely focus on the creation of video games.

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Codemasters is a British video game developer and publisher that was founded by brothers Richard and David Darling in October 1986. Based in Southam, England the game developer along with Llamasoft, Ultimate Play the Game, Gremlin Interactive and Rare is one of the oldest video game studios based in the United Kingdom.